Electrophysiological Responses of Bactrocera kraussi (Hardy) (Tephritidae) to Rectal Gland Secretion
Sally Noushini, Soo Jean Park, Jeanneth Perez, Danielle Holgate, Vivian Mendez, Ian M. Jamie, Joanne F. Jamie and Phillip W. Taylor
Pheromones are biologically important in fruit fly mating systems, and also have potential applications as attractants or mating disrupters for pest management. Bactrocera kraussi (Hardy) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pest fruit fly for which the chemical profile of rectal glands is available for males but not for females. There have been no studies of the volatile emissions of either sex or of electrophysiological responses to these compounds. The present study (i) establishes the chemical profiles of rectal gland contents and volatiles emitted by both sexes of B. kraussi by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and (ii) evaluates the detection of the identified compounds by gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (GC–EAD) and –electropalpogram detection (GC–EPD). Sixteen compounds are identified in the rectal glands of male B. kraussi and 29 compounds are identified in the rectal glands of females. Of these compounds, 5 were detected in the headspace of males and 13 were detected in the headspace of females. GC–EPD assays recorded strong signals in both sexes against (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, 2-ethyl-7-mehtyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane isomer 2, (E,Z)/(Z,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, and (Z,Z)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane. Male antennae responded to (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, 2-methyl-6-pentyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 6-hexyl-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 6-oxononan-1-ol, ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate and ethyl (Z)-hexadec-9-enoate, whereas female antennae responded to (E,E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane and 2-methyl-6-pentyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran only. These compounds are candidates as pheromones mediating sexual interactions in B. kraussi.
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